<kbd id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></kbd><address id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'><style id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></style></address><button id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></button>

              <kbd id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></kbd><address id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'><style id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></style></address><button id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></button>

                      <kbd id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></kbd><address id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'><style id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></style></address><button id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></button>

                              <kbd id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></kbd><address id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'><style id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></style></address><button id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></button>

                                      <kbd id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></kbd><address id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'><style id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></style></address><button id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></button>

                                              <kbd id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></kbd><address id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'><style id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></style></address><button id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></button>

                                                      <kbd id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></kbd><address id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'><style id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></style></address><button id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></button>

                                                              <kbd id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></kbd><address id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'><style id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></style></address><button id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></button>

                                                                      <kbd id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></kbd><address id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'><style id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></style></address><button id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></button>

                                                                              <kbd id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></kbd><address id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'><style id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></style></address><button id='ZLlyqCiX3uCyx7l'></button>

                                                                                  产品分类

                                                                                  新闻资讯

                                                                                  主营业务

                                                                                  明是地产发展

                                                                                  当前位置:长春明是地产发展有限公司 > 明是地产发展 >

                                                                                  优德w88可靠吗_积年考研阅读真题:2001年世界硕士学位研究生入学同一测验英语试

                                                                                  作者:优德w88可靠吗 发布时间:2018-07-08 08:14 阅读:865

                                                                                    Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. ( 40 points )

                                                                                  Text 1

                                                                                    Specialization can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge. By splitting up the subject matter into smaller units, one man could continue to handle the information and use it as the basis for further research. But specialization was only one of a series of related developments in science affecting the process of communication. Another was the growing professionalization of scientific activity.

                                                                                    No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professionals and amateurs in science: exceptions can be found to any rule. Nevertheless, the word ‘amateur' does carry a connotation that the person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share its values. The growth of specialization in the nineteenth century, with its consequent requirement of a longer, more complex training, implied greater problems for amateur participation in science. The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United Kingdom.

                                                                                    A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper. Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture. Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local studies in the old way. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century. As a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way.

                                                                                    Although the process of professionalization and specialization was already well under way in British geology during the nineteenth century, its full consequences were thus delayed until the twentieth century. In science generally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the crucial period for this change in the structure of science.

                                                                                    51.The growth of specialization in the 19th century might be more clearly seen in sciences such as ____.

                                                                                    [A]sociology and chemistry

                                                                                    [B]physics and psychology

                                                                                    [C]sociology and psychology

                                                                                    [D]physics and chemistry

                                                                                    52.We can infer from the passage that ____.

                                                                                    [A]there is little distinction between specialization and professionalization

                                                                                    [B]amateurs can compete with professionals in some areas of science

                                                                                    [C]professionals tend to welcome amateurs into the scientific community

                                                                                    [D]amateurs have national academic societies but no local ones

                                                                                    53.The author writes of the development of geology to demonstrate ____.

                                                                                    [A]the process of specialization and professionalization

                                                                                    [B]the hardship of amateurs in scientific study

                                                                                    [C]the change of policies in scientific publications

                                                                                    [D]the discrimination of professionals against amateurs

                                                                                    54.The direct reason for specialization is ____.

                                                                                    [A]the development in communication

                                                                                    [B]the growth of professionalization

                                                                                    [C]the expansion of scientific knowledge

                                                                                    [D]the splitting up of academic societies

                                                                                  Text 2

                                                                                    A great deal of attention is being paid today to the so-called digital divide — the division of the world into the info (information) rich and the info poor. And that divide does exist today. My wife and I lectured about this looming danger twenty years ago. What was less visible then, however, were the new, positive forces that work against the digital divide. There are reasons to be optimistic.

                                                                                    There are technological reasons to hope the digital divide will narrow. As the Internet becomes more and more commercialized, it is in the interest of business to universalize access — after all, the more people online, the more potential customers there are. More and more governments, afraid their countries will be left behind, want to spread Internet access. Within the next decade or two, one to two billion people on the planet will be netted together. As a result, I now believe the digital divide will narrow rather than widen in the years ahead. And that is very good news because the Internet may well be the most powerful tool for combating world poverty that we've ever had.

                                                                                    Of course, the use of the Internet isn't the only way to defeat poverty. And the Internet is not the only tool we have. But it has enormous potential.